CIVILICA We Respect the Science
Publisher of Iranian Journals and Conference Proceedings

Breast cancer and abnormal vaginal bleeding

Credit to Download: 0 | Page Numbers 1 | Abstract Views: 53
Year: 2019
COI code: DTOGIMED03_009
Paper Language: English

How to Download This Paper

For Downloading the Fulltext of CIVILICA papers please visit the orginal Persian Section of website.

Authors Breast cancer and abnormal vaginal bleeding

  Tahereh Ashrafganjoei - MD,Gynecologist oncologist, Associate proffesor Shahid Beheshti University of Medical sciences


According to statistics from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), there areapproximately 44 million people living with cancer worldwide . In the United States, the fiveyearsurvival rate for female breast cancer is approximately 90 percent. Tamoxifen hasantiestrogenic activity in breast tissue, as a chemopreventive agent.It increases risk forendometrial tumors.So,Regular gynecologic follow-up should be performed for women who have not undergone totalhysterectomy . This is particularly important in women who are receiving tamoxifen .Theelevated risk of endometrial cancer continues as long as the patient takes tamoxifen anddecreases after treatment is discontinued . Because tamoxifen leads to enlargement ofsubendometrial glands, endometrial thickness may be increased in the absence of malignancy;therefore, endometrial thickness alone should not prompt further intervention in womentaking tamoxifen. Tamoxifen does not appear to result in an increased EC risk in premenopausalwomen. Routine screening for EC is not performed for women on tamoxifen. Forpremenopausal women taking tamoxifen irregular bleeding should be evaluated withhysteroscopy, hysterosonography, and if the source of bleeding remains unclear, endometrialbiopsy.For postmenopausal women taking tamoxifen who experience vaginal bleeding, endometrialevaluation should be pursued with biopsy and appropriate follow-upDetermining menopausal status is of key importance in the evaluation of AUB. Based on thehigh prevalence of amenorrhea among women on tamoxifen, menstrual history is not a reliablemethod of determining menopausal status. For laboratory testing, we order serum estradiol(E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. These remain reliable endocrinologicmarkers in the setting of tamoxifen use. Tamoxifen slightly raises FSH levels, but typically notto postmenopausal levels.


Perma Link
COI code: DTOGIMED03_009

how to cite to this paper:

If you want to refer to this article in your research, you can easily use the following in the resources and references section:
Ashrafganjoei, Tahereh, 2019, Breast cancer and abnormal vaginal bleeding, 3rd debatable topics on obstetrics gynecology & infertility, تهران, دانشگاه علوم پزشكي و خدمات بهداشتي و درماني شهيد بهشتي, the text, wherever referred to or an achievement of this article is mentioned, after mentioning the article, inside the parental, the following specifications are written.
First Time: (Ashrafganjoei, Tahereh, 2019)
Second and more: (Ashrafganjoei, 2019)
For a complete overview of how to citation please review the following CIVILICA Guide (Citation)


The University/Research Center Information:
in University Ranking and Scientometrics the Iranian universities and research centers are evaluated based on scientific papers.

Research Info Management

Export Citation info of this paper to research management softwares

New Related Papers

Iran Scientific Advertisment Netword

Share this paper


COI is a national code dedicated to all Iranian Conference and Journal Papers. the COI of each paper can be verified online.