COI code: ICOPMAS13_133
Paper Language: English
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Authors EXAMINING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE OPRC-HNS PROTOCOL AND THE ACCESSION OF IRAN TO THE HNS CONVENTIONMaryam Rasouli - Marine Environment Protection Expert , Ports and Maritime Organization (PMO), Tehran, Iran
Abstract:Hazardous and noxious chemicals are increasingly being transported by sea. Current estimates indicate some 50000 hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) are carried regularly by sea with bulk trade of 165 million tons per year worldwide. This is a very broad definition and encompasses chemicals ranging from vegetable oils used in foods and pharmaceuticals through to highly toxic compounds such as corrosive gases (chlorine and ammonia), acids and alkalis (sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide), and harmful volatile organic compounds(styrene,benzene), all of which have a range of industrial applications. The OPRC-HNS protocol follows the principles of OPRC, excluding oil products to include all otherhazardous and noxious substances. To provide a clear definition of HNS, the issue has to be discussed from different points of view. Many codes and protocols have included definition of HNS, among them OPRC-HNS protocol, MARPOL 73/78, IMDG13 Code, IBC14 Code, and BC15 Code. The Protocol on Preparedness, Response andCooperation to Pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances, 2000 (OPRC-HNS protocol) was formally adopted by IMO (OPRC) member States, at aDiplomatic Conference held at the IMO headquarters in London between 9-15 of March 2000. The protocol entry into force was scheduled for 12 months after ratification byfifteen States Parties already members of the OPRC Convention. The fifteenth ratification was filed with IMO on 14 June 2006. The Protocol was therefore entered intoforce on 14 June 2007. The formal ratification of the OPRC-HNS protocol by the government of Islamic Republic of Iran has started in March 2009. It should benoted that the risks of toxic and hazardous incidents are very different from oil pollution incidents. A chemical incident could include a number of chemicals with different names. Also, a ship can carry a bunch of different chemicals that react to these products with one another, which can have consequences like explosions, fires andenvironmental pollution. As a result of the safety of individuals and environmental protection and possible compensation of losses due to the immediate effects andserious threats of toxic and dangerous human health in comparison with oil pollution according to the nature of the chemical and type of incident (fire, leakage, ... ) Isprioritized. According to the data, the statistics of chemical discharge and loading during the years 1391 to 1395 in our ports ere about 2490.79 tons, a considerable amount ofwhich is related to the ports of Mahshahr and Assaluyeh.
COI code: ICOPMAS13_133
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Rasouli, Maryam, 2018, EXAMINING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE OPRC-HNS PROTOCOL AND THE ACCESSION OF IRAN TO THE HNS CONVENTION, 13th International Conference on Coasts, Ports and Marine Structures, تهران, سازمان بنادر و دريانوردي, https://www.civilica.com/Paper-ICOPMAS13-ICOPMAS13_133.htmlInside the text, wherever referred to or an achievement of this article is mentioned, after mentioning the article, inside the parental, the following specifications are written.
First Time: (Rasouli, Maryam, 2018)
Second and more: (Rasouli, 2018)
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