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Expression of Virulence Factors of Clostridium difficile at sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Antibiotics; a Review

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Year: 2019
COI code: MEDISM20_040
Paper Language: English

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Authors Expression of Virulence Factors of Clostridium difficile at sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Antibiotics; a Review

  Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi - Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Research Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  Mitra Abbasifard - Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ibn Abi-Talib Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  Reza Bahramabadi - Ph.D Candidate, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
  Shokrollah Assar - Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Research Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  Ali Shojaei-Bagheyni - Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Research Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
  Mohammad-Ali Khodayari - Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Research Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

Abstract:

Introduction and Objectives: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) generally colonizes in the intestinal tract of hospitalized patients who receive antibiotics for a long time. C. difficile expresses its virulence factors which are associated with pathogenesis. Naturally, the expression of these virulence factors may be influenced by antibiotics.Materials and Methods: The databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, google scholar and so on) were searched by appropriate criteria. Results: The effect of antibiotics has investigated at a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on virulence factors. The expression of virulence factors of C. difficile was varied and depended on the type of antibiotic and C. difficile isolate. Some of the antibiotics at sub-MIC upregulated virulence factors and, while others downregulated theirs. Meanwhile, some antibiotics had no detectable effects on the regulation of virulence factors. Most of the antibiotics at sub-MICs regulate genes expression of virulence factors, toxin production, spore formation, and germination by several mechanisms especially SOS response system. Conclusion: In order to achieve a clear understanding of the effect of antibiotics at sub-MIC on the expression of genes of virulence factors, which are related to the pathogenesis of C. difficile, further and wider investigations are needed, especially on the issue of the numbers of isolates.

Keywords:

Virulence factors, sub-MIC, Clostridium difficile, Antibiotics

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COI code: MEDISM20_040

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Rezazadeh Zarandi, Ebrahim; Mitra Abbasifard; Reza Bahramabadi; Shokrollah Assar; Ali Shojaei-Bagheyni & Mohammad-Ali Khodayari, 2019, Expression of Virulence Factors of Clostridium difficile at sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Antibiotics; a Review, 20th International Congress of Microbiology of Iran, كرمان, دانشگاه علوم پزشكي كرمان, https://www.civilica.com/Paper-MEDISM20-MEDISM20_040.htmlInside the text, wherever referred to or an achievement of this article is mentioned, after mentioning the article, inside the parental, the following specifications are written.
First Time: (Rezazadeh Zarandi, Ebrahim; Mitra Abbasifard; Reza Bahramabadi; Shokrollah Assar; Ali Shojaei-Bagheyni & Mohammad-Ali Khodayari, 2019)
Second and more: (Rezazadeh Zarandi; Abbasifard; Bahramabadi; Assar; Shojaei-Bagheyni & Khodayari, 2019)
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Paper No.: 288
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