Background: Solving the problem of food and nutrition security requires the integration of various sectors of the society. Determining the role of each sector in promoting people’s health has presented intersectoral collaboration and transformed the theory of social health determinant approach into action. In this study, with a new approach, and in regards, the national organizations responsible for food and nutrition security have been classified and the role of each has been identified as functions and responsibilities. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted by studying the documents and programs related to food and nutrition security, as well as semi-structured interviews and focused group discussion with two groups, including experts and executives. To determine the role of organizations, the food supply chain was used. Results: According to the food chain, organizations responsible for food and nutrition security in Iran can be divided into three categories: 1. Responsible governance in the economic, political, social, technological, international, and environmental changes affecting food and nutrition security, 2. Responsible governance in the main process of food and nutrition security 3. Supportive sectors and systems for food and nutrition security. Generally speaking, it appears that the government responsible for the main process of food and nutrition security are made up of institutions responsible for providing adequate food, responsible governance for food safety, and responsible governance in the field of nutrition and body consumption. Conclusion: The findings of this study aimed to explain the expectations and responsibilities of ministries and organizations responsible for food and nutrition security.