Methadone Poisoning in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Iran

Publish Year: 1396
نوع سند: مقاله ژورنالی
زبان: English
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تاریخ نمایه سازی: 9 آذر 1402


Context: Symptoms of methadone poisoning, as one of the most dangerous types of poisoning, are very serious in children. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe causes and clinical symptoms of methadone poisoning in children admitted to hospitals in Iran. Data Sources: Relevant studies published in national and international journals before January ۲۹, ۲۰۱۶ were identified by studying the available databases, including PubMed, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, MagIran, and Irandoc. Study Selection: After excluding duplicate, irrelevant, and low-quality articles, relevant papers were entered into the meta-analysis. The prevalence, mean, and standard deviation of methadone poisoning symptoms in children were statistically analyzed, using Stata version ۱۱, and causes of methadone poisoning were presented in tables. Data Extraction: Studies with unknown sample sizes, abstracts without access to full text, articles with quality assessment scores below ۱۵.۵, and studies carried out on non-Iranian populations were excluded from the meta-analysis. Results: During the initial advanced search, ۱۵۹۴ articles were identified. After quality assessment, ۱۲ papers were found eligible for the final systematic review and meta-analysis, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The reported symptoms included drowsiness, vomiting, apnea, cyanosis, seizure, ataxia, and delirium. In the meta-analysis, prevalence of symptoms in referred patients was estimated at ۴۴% (۰.۹۵% confidence interval, ۰.۲۸۸ to ۰.۶۰۹). The causes of poisoning in children included accidental feeding by parents, storage of drugs in inappropriate containers, parental addiction, and low educational level of parents. Conclusions: It is important to keep methadone in a suitable container away from children. Also, it is essential to focus on educating parents on health issues of their children.


Yasaman Allameh

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran

Faezeh Sadat Akrami

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

Gholamreza Mohammadi

Department of Pediatrics, Velayat Hospital of Damghan, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

Nader Molavi

Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of SocialWelfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran and Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

Masoudeh Babakhanian

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran