Root biomass and genotypic response in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under well-watered and drought field conditions

Publish Year: 1403
نوع سند: مقاله ژورنالی
زبان: English
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JR_CBJOU-14-2_001

تاریخ نمایه سازی: 18 فروردین 1403

Abstract:

An optimum root system in wheat might enhance water and nutrient uptake under drought-prone environments without depleting soil moisture, thus improving grain yield. Two experiments were carried out at the University of California, Riverside, under well-watered and droughted field conditions; receiving ۴۱۲ and ۲۶۸ mm of water and rain, respectively. Five recombinant inbred lines with root biomass ranging from ۱.۱۷۵ to ۷.۸۵۰ g plant-۱ plus a check parent variety, Yecora Rojo, with root biomass of ۱.۸۲۰ g plant-۱ were used. Phenological, morphological and agronomic characters were measured. Covariate analysis between grain yield (GY) with number of days from sowing to anthesis (DTA) and to physiological maturity (DTM), grain filling period (GFP), and plant height (PH) were not significant under both irrigation regimes indicating GY was not confounded with these traits. The main effect of irrigation on DTM, GFP, PH, number of tillers (NT) and spikes (NS) per ۵۰ cm, thousand grain weight (TGW), GY, and shoot biomass (SB) was either significant or highly significant, but not on days to anthesis (DTA), number of grains per spike (NGS), and harvest index (HI). The main effect of genotype on the traits measured was highly significant. The effect of genotype × irrigation interaction was relatively low. The mild drought before anthesis and severe drought after anthesis reduced DTM by ۵%, GFP by ۱۰%, NS per ۵۰ cm by ۲۴.۶%, and TGW by ۱۱% which resulted in ۲۵% and ۲۷% reduction in GY and SB, respectively. Stress tolerance index (STI) of the genotypes calculated based on GY ranged from ۰.۵۲ to ۰.۸۸. A quadratic pattern of relationship was observed between root biomass measured under well-watered (soil water-holding capacity) glasshouse conditions with GY measured under well-watered (R۲ = ۰.۶۲) and droughted field conditions (R۲ = ۰.۹۳). The relationship between root biomass and STI also followed a quadratic pattern (R۲ = ۰.۶۰). According to the quadratic equations, GY under well-watered and droughted field conditions maximized at ۵.۸۰۶ and ۴.۵۷۵ t ha-۱ when root biomass was ۱.۶۳۰ and ۳.۹۷۵ g plant-۱, respectively, and STI was highest when root biomass was ۳.۵۰۰ g plant-۱. These results indicated that wheat lines with vigorous root system might be better adapted to drought-prone environments.  However, over-sized root biomass might reduce grain yield under both well-watered and drought conditions.

Authors

Bahman Ehdaie

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California, USA.

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