The Concentration of Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, Zinc, Manganese and Iron in Saffron: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review

Publish Year: 1402
نوع سند: مقاله ژورنالی
زبان: English
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شناسه ملی سند علمی:

JR_JAEHR-12-2_004

تاریخ نمایه سازی: 27 خرداد 1403

Abstract:

Background: We aimed to investigate the concentrations of metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), in various types of saffron.Methods: All published studies until ۲۰۲۲ were searched from PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. The published articles’ references were also evaluated to investigate the prevalence of heavy metal contamination in different types of saffron. The heterogeneity and concentration were estimated using I۲ and the random effect model, respectively.Results: Among ۱۲۸ articles retrieved in the identification phase, eight articles were included in this meta-analysis. The Pb exhibited the highest concentration among metals, with an average concentration of ۰.۱۰ mg/kg and a range of ۰.۱۱-۰.۱۰ mg/kg. Cd had the lowest concentration, with an average of ۰.۰۰۹ mg/kg and a range of ۰.۰۰۸-۰.۰۱۰ mg/kg. The concentration of Ni, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were also in accordance with the sequence of Ni > Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu. Specifically, Ni demonstrated the highest concentration among essential metals in the sample, with an average of ۲.۸۱ mg/kg and a range of ۲.۷۶-۲.۸۶ mg/kg, while Cd displayed the lowest concentration, with an average of ۰.۰۲۲ mg/kg and a range of ۰.۰۲۳-۰.۰۲۳ mg/kg.Conclusion: The concentration of different metals in the examined saffron was variable, which can be attributed to several factors, including characteristics of the metals, nature of the saffron plant, composition of the irrigation water and the soil used for production of the plant, water conditions and crop cultivation.

Authors

Sahar Amir Sadeghi

Nutrition Health Research Center, Research and Technology Vice-Chancellor, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran

Kianoosh Karami

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Tehran Payam Noor Shargh University, Tehran, Iran

Behnaz Alafchi

Department of Biostatistics, Modeling Non communicable Diseases Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

Akram Ranjbar

Nutrition Health Research Center, Research and Technology Vice-Chancellor, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran

Fereshte Mehri

Nutrition Health Research Center, Research and Technology Vice-Chancellor, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran