Background: Longevity of basic medical sciences is a major concern of medical educators and physicians. It has been shown that different learning styles can affect the half-life of the material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of partially tests during renal physiology course on the student’s retention of renal physiology knowledge and knowledge loss in pharmacy and medical students. Methods: This case-control study was performed at Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2012-2013. Study populations were pharmacy students and medical students. The final renal physiology examination was on Jan of 2013 for both groups. Pharmacy students participated in three partial tests during the renal physiology course at first semester of the academic year 2012-2013 while medical students did not participate in these tests. 25 weeks after the final renal physiology examination, the both groups of students were recruited to take a retest. Retention
test consisted of 17 multiple-choice questions; each question had one correct answer. Statistical paired- and independent-samples t-tests were used to analysis the results. Results: the mean scores of retention test in medical students was significantly lower than in pharmacy students (P<0.01). Pharmacy students were answered correctly 66.4±2.3% of questions, while the rate was declined to 45.15±3.25% in medical students. The rate of knowledge loss in medical student was (22.7±3%) significantly higher than in pharmacy students (10.86±1.5%) (P<0.01). Conclusions: The findings suggest that taking partially tests during physiology course is a highly efficient and an effective strategy to enhance the retention of renal physiology knowledge and delay the rate of knowledge loss .