Game theory applications in host-microbe interactions toward disease manifestation: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as an example

Publish Year: 1400
نوع سند: مقاله ژورنالی
زبان: English
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JR_IJBMS-24-10_002

تاریخ نمایه سازی: 11 مهر 1400

Abstract:

Objective(s): Game theory describes the interactions between two players and the pay-off from winning, losing, or compromising. In the present study, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)–host interactions were used as an example for the application of game theory to describe and predict the different outcomes of Mtb-infection and introducing target molecules for use in protection or therapy.Materials and Methods: The gene expression for eight main markers (CCR۱, CCR۲, IDO, Tbet, TGFβ, iNOS, MMP۳, MMP۹) of host response and three Mtb virulence factors (Ag۸۵B, CFP-۱۰, ESAT-۶) were assessed in broncho-alveolar lavage of TB+ and TB- patients.Results: The players’ strategies in the “Nash equilibrium”, showed that Ag۸۵B is the main virulence factor for Mtb in active phase, and also the most immunogenic factor, if the host can respond by high expression of T-bet and iNOS toward a Th۱ response. In this situation, Mtb can express high levels of ESAT-۶ and CFP۱۰ and change the game to the latency, in which host responses by medium expression of T-bet and iNOS and medium level of TGF-β and IDO. Consistently, the IDO expression was ۱۳۴-times higher in TB+s than the TB-s,and the T-bet expression,~۲۰۰-times higher in the TB-s than the TB+s. Furthermore, Mtb-Ag۸۵B had a strong positive association with CCR۲, T-bet and iNOS, but had a negative correlation with IDO.Conclusion: Ag۸۵B and maybe ESAT۶ (without its suppressive C-terminal) should be considered for making subunit vaccines. And, preventing IDO formation in dendritic cells might be a novel target for immunotherapy of tuberculosis, to reduce the pressure of immune-suppression on Th۱ responses.

Authors

Hiva Sharebiani

Immunology Research Center, Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Sara Hajimiri

Immunology Research Center, Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Shadi Abbasnia

Immunology Research Center, Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Saman Soleimanpour

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Amir Mohamad Hashem Asnaashari

Lung Disease Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran

Narges Valizadeh

Immunology Research Center, Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Mohammad Derakhshan

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Rezvan Pilpa

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Arezoo Firouzeh

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Kiarash Ghazvini

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Saeid Amel JamehDar

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee

Immunology Research Center, Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Division, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

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