Growing, flowering and seeding characteristics of two forest violas (Viola caspia and Viola sintenisii) Compared to Viola tricolor under controlled conditions

Publish Year: 1403
نوع سند: مقاله ژورنالی
زبان: English
View: 67

This Paper With 9 Page And PDF Format Ready To Download

  • Certificate
  • من نویسنده این مقاله هستم

استخراج به نرم افزارهای پژوهشی:

لینک ثابت به این Paper:

شناسه ملی سند علمی:

JR_JJMPB-13-1_013

تاریخ نمایه سازی: 8 بهمن 1402

Abstract:

Forests, along with their great advantages in environmental sustainability, are suitable and exclusive habitats for important plant species, including violets. Viola is an important forest plant in terms of recognizing flowering systems diversities, ornamental and medicinal importance. Medicinal violets are generally wild and natural. Cultivation and industrialization of drug production process from these medicinal plants, it is necessary to review and re-research them in controlled conditions. In this study, morphological differences, plant growth and developmental behavior especially flower buds production were studied in three different species of Viola: Viola caspia, Viola sintenisii and Viola tricolor (under greenhouse and field conditions). All greenhouse and field experiments were performed in a completely randomized design (CRD) and randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, respectively. The species with a purple flowers (V. sintenisii) blooms about fifteen days earlier than a white flower violet (V. caspia) in spring season. Compared to these two species, the tricolor species blossoms two months earlier. Appearance and morphological tolerance to winter cold was the highest in V. tricolor and then in V. sintenisii was second.  The V. caspia tolerance to winter cold was lowest. Flower buds in the blue species (V. sintenisii) are formed in the first node located on the meristem and form a flower shoot up to a height of ۱۱ cm. In white flowers (V. caspia) and ornamental violet (V. tricolor), unlike the first species, flower buds form on higher internodes, which are about ۵ cm higher than the original node. The color of the underground stem in V. sintenisii and V. caspia was white and brown respectively. The type of flower produced in V. sintenisii and V. tricolor were chasmogam at all blooming time, but in the V. caspia it is of the type of cleistogam, semi-chasmogam and chasmogam. The size and shape of the fruits formed on all three studied species are different, which is round in V. sintenisii and elliptical in V. caspia and V. tricolor. The V. sintenisii grow in a sleeping and rosette state and tend to hang in pots, however the V. caspia and V. tricolor are completely vertical and non - rosette. The amount of violet scent (olfactory test) was the highest in V. sintenisii and then second in V. caspia but ornamental violet (V. tricolor) had no odor. Because the most of medicinal spices of viola are wild, it is challenging for compare of their different species for morphological and physiological characteristics as well as produce a standardized product with a high content of specialized metabolites (SM).  To overcome this great challenge, this study focused on the evaluation of growing, flowering and seeding characteristics of ۳ forest violas under controlled conditions. This information will be so important for their domestication, cultivation, mass propagation and plant breeding programs.

Authors

Ali Ammarellou

Research Institute of Modern Biological Techniques, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.

Valiallah Mozaffarian

Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), P. O. Box ۱۳۱۸۵-۱۱۶, Tehran, Iran.

مراجع و منابع این Paper:

لیست زیر مراجع و منابع استفاده شده در این Paper را نمایش می دهد. این مراجع به صورت کاملا ماشینی و بر اساس هوش مصنوعی استخراج شده اند و لذا ممکن است دارای اشکالاتی باشند که به مرور زمان دقت استخراج این محتوا افزایش می یابد. مراجعی که مقالات مربوط به آنها در سیویلیکا نمایه شده و پیدا شده اند، به خود Paper لینک شده اند :
  • Ballard H.E., Sytsma K.J., Kowal R.R. ۱۹۹۹. Shrinking the violets: ...
  • Yockteng R., Ballard H.E., Mansion G., Dajoz I., Nadot S. ...
  • Abolghasemi S., Naderi R., Fattahi Moghadam M.R. ۲۰۲۰. Evaluation of ...
  • Tutin T.G., Heywood V.H., Burges N.A., Valentine D.H., Walters S.M.., ...
  • Mozafarian V. ۱۹۹۶. A dictionary of Iranian plant names. Tehran: ...
  • Marcussen T, Borgen L. ۲۰۱۱. Species delimitation in the Ponto-Caucasian ...
  • Marcussen T., Nordal I. ۱۹۹۷. Viola suavis, a new spice ...
  • Sprengel C.K. ۱۷۹۳. Das entdeckte Geheimniss der Natur im Bau ...
  • Freitas L, Sazima M. ۲۰۰۳. Floral biology and pollination mechanisms ...
  • Knuth P. ۱۹۰۴. Handbuch der Blütenbiologie, v. III. p. ۱. ...
  • Beattie AT. ۱۹۶۹a Studies in the pollination ecology of Viola ...
  • Beattie T. ۱۹۶۹b The floral biology of three species of ...
  • Marcussen T., Ballard H.E., Danihelka J., Flores A.R., Nicola M.V., ...
  • نمایش کامل مراجع