Research Article: The use of dietary probiotics in long-term exposure to treat the effect of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen causes thyroid dysfunction in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Publish Year: 1402
نوع سند: مقاله ژورنالی
زبان: English
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JR_JIFRO-22-6_005

تاریخ نمایه سازی: 29 بهمن 1402

Abstract:

Naproxen (NPX) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has been identified in aquatic environments. It has led to growing concerns about endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms exposed to its drug residues. This study aimed to evaluate the disruptive effects of NPX and the improving effects of probiotic nutrition on thyroid, and zebrafish growth. The fish were fed for ۶۰ days by basic diet (TN, Control) basic diet with probiotics (TP, TPN) (Lactobacillus reuteri, CFU/۱.۵×۱۰۸) and simultaneously exposed to NPX (۱۰۰ μg/L) (TN, TPN). During the experiment, Triiodothyronine (T۳), Thyroxine (T۴), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Iodothyronine Deiodinase-۱ (DIO۱), and Iodothyronine Deiodinase-۲ (DIO۲), in addition to growth rate factors were evaluated with ELISA and Quantitative real-time PCR assay. The results showed probiotic feeding and NPX exposure did not affect T۳ levels (p>۰.۰۵), but decreased T۴ (p<۰.۰۵). TSH gene transcription expression increased as a result of probiotic feeding and NPX exposure (p<۰.۰۵) while DIO۱ and DIO۲ gene expression decreased (p<۰.۰۵). Weight gain and growth rate were also observed as a result of probiotic feeding, while exposure to NPX decreased growth rate (p<۰.۰۵). Generally, the results showed that NPX increased the risk of thyroid dysfunction and reduced growth rate in zebrafish, while probiotic feeding improved these factors. Therefore, the use of probiotic supplements in rearing centers is recommended due to the continuous increase in the consumption and distribution of drugs. Prolonged exposure to drug concentrations causes thyroid dysfunction and consequently reduced growth in fish, which will lead to significant economic losses.

Authors

A. Ebrahim

Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

N. Panahi

Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

R. Kazempoor

Department of Biology, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran

A.E. Khajehrahimi

Department of Marine Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, North Tehran, Iran

N. Hadizadeh Shirazi

Department of Biology, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran

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